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Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disorder affecting many women in the reproductive age group and is characterized by anovulation, state of insulin resistance and production of excess male hormones


  • Irregular periods is the most common symptom.
  • Excessive facial and body hair (hirsutism )
  • severe acne
  • male pattern baldness (alopecia)
  • Acanthosis nigricans – dark, velvety skin patches present over back of the neck or axillary areas.
  • Obesity – commonly seen along with PCOS


  • Complete history and examination
  • Blood investigation
  • GTT
  • lipid profile>li>
  • serum testosterone
  • FSH
  • LH
  • AMH
  • Ultrasound pelvis- to assess the size and morphology of the ovaries


  • Sub fertility
  • Increased risk of miscarriages
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Sleep apnea>
  • Hypertension
  • Endometrial Cancer

Treatment :

  • Weight loss it is the main treatment in PCOS as it improves the hormonal imbalance and decreases insulin resistance.

Medical Management :

  • Regularization of periods – OCP, Progesterone
  • Ovulation Induction drugs
  • Insulin sensitizers like metformin

Surgical Management:

  • Laparoscopic Ovarian drilling in resistant cases

A condition where there is a loss of normal function of ovaries before the age of 40A condition where there is a loss of normal function of ovaries before the age of 40


  • Irregular or missed periods
  • Infertility
  • Hot flushes
  • Night sweats
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Decreased sexual desire


  • chromosomal defects like – mosaic Turners
  • Toxins – chemotherapy and radiation therapy can induce damage to the ovaries
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Unknown Factors


  • History and physical examination
  • Blood Investigation – testing of hormones like FSH, LH, AMH, estradiol
  • Ultrasound pelvis to assess the size of ovaries


  • Donor egg programme in those desiring to have a child
  • Hormone replacement therapy in those who have completed child bearing